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Breweries and the production of bottled water - Technical solutions

Technical solutions

Breweries and the production of bottled water

Technology of beer production is a delicate and complicated process that depends on many factors.

Wort cooling

Beer production at the state-of-art and modernized factory needs powerful heat sources for brewing process and water heating with auxiliary operations. Wort boiling as the heating process finishes when it reaches a whirlpool. Then the product turns to wort cooling unit. Production rate and efficiency of cooling must meet the technological conditions of brewing. As a rule, the wort is cooled during 60-90 min. up to the temperature of 6…8 °. In this case it is possible to economically use plate coolers.

Today one- or two-stage wort unit coolers are the most popular. While analyzing the technologist must consider the level of preheating cooking water supplied to a unit cooler.

The best solution for refrigeration technological scheme, consideration of thermal conditions of the inflow of cooking water significantly influence on the brewing energy cost, firstly on the energy resources of the cold production unit.

It becomes evident from the wort cooling costs with the brew volume of 400 hl. The inlet wort temperature to unit cooler is 95 , the outlet wort temperature after cooling is 7 . The time of cooling is 60 min. The heat quantity released by carrier is 14,7 GJ (gigajoule), power consumption for cooling is 4,1 MW.

Cooling with two-stage unit cooler means that on the first stage of cooling the cooking water warms up to the temperature that is the most efficient for the following brewing process (for example, 87 ).

While analyzing the operating mode of the unit cooler the technologist works out the quantity of the influent cooking water. The unit cooler section, where the wort temperature drops to the appropriate temperature for fermentation measure (the second stage), has mechanical cooling circuit. In this sector so-called ice water is used. This cooled carrier is safe and convenient because it helps the simple periodic unit cooler sanitation. With single-stage cooling a water flow with inlet temperature of 12 cools the wort. This water must be cooled to the required temperature before the process of cooling or during it lively. It is more economic to cool the cooking water in the storage with the lowest cooling capacity. The comparison between single- and double-stage ways of wort cooling with the brew volume of 400 hl shows that the capacity of the necessary refrigeration equipment is 140 KW according to a single-stage way.

According to a double-stage way the equipment capacity using ice water is more than 400 KW. The installation of such equipment requires much more investment, working expenses, operating costs for electricity, maintenance, etc. The costs can be excluded with the help of ice accumulators where ice is collecting for a long time during the period between the wort cooling. When the second cooling begins, the ice is melting little by little. In this case it doesn’t take too much energy consumption for primary refrigeration equipment.

In order to make ice there is a big demand for energy for compressors and other cooling circuit equipment, because the evaporating temperature must be 58 . Besides ice accumulators require high filling capacity of coolant in comparison with the flow plate refrigerator with ice water. We supply the state-of-art flow plate refrigerator as a unit with suitable exchangers, water pump with speed control, components of the primary cooling system, modern regulatory elements and sensors. Special software controls the work of refrigerator automatically and adds the necessary quantity of water of the temperature 12 to the water storage. This system also controls the compressors and hold their power according to the target level.

Cooling of fermentation workshop

In the modern brewing there are two ways of beer fermentation – the classic process with fermentation and post fermentation (lager tank) workshops and the process with cilindroconical tanks. The process of main fermentation requires the simple and general remote control of cooling mode of yeast tank to the necessary fermentation temperature and young beer cooling to the lager temperature. The state-of-art refrigeration equipment of the brewing workshop has corresponding heat-exchangers, pneumatically controlled mountings of cooling circuits and visual imaging software for setting of the required parameters and cooling cycles in the brewing workshop. At the up-to-date plant air conditioners with heat recuperation and filtration cool the environment of the brewing workshop. Air engineering layout must provide the adequate ventilation and the room temperature at a required level.

Special panel outlets give the opportunity to hold very low air speed in the brewing workshop. The inlet air temperature should be softly controlled. The system controls air dew pocket. It prevents condensation on the air set, provides the target CO2 content in the brewing workshop. All that provide qualified cooling work, significant economy of cooling energy and minimize the peak load of cold consumption.

Cooling unit of lager young beer

The simple post fermentation process of young beer is made without additional direct-flow cooling. Some intensified beer production processes requires the cooling of young beer during the post fermentation directly. According to technologists requirements young beer can be cooled to the temperature of lager maturation. It requires an installation of cooling unit where the outlet temperature of beer can be fine-tuned. The cooling unit must have high food safety and stable parameters that meet the existent lager capacities.

Cooling of post fermentation workshop lager premises

The next refrigeration complex lager storage cooling. The question is about cooling of large spaces that thermally loaded by heat of lager beer, heat storage on the walls, personnel, light, usage of wash liquids in the lager tanks, etc. For effective cooling of lager tanks there are fan unit coolers that allow to control space cooling cycle properly. There is the opportunity to change the fan turns depending on space temperature changes in the cooling process.

Cooling units and piping are made from stainless steel. For temperature control of lager premises the cooling system has automatically controlled fittings and visual imaging software for control and setting of operational characteristics. The software also contains basic data and settings of beer production that are entered into production prime sheets.

Cilindroconical tanks cooling

Beer production process in cilindroconical tanks distinguishes by its special technology that is more effective in comparison with classical process of fermentation and post fermetation. As a rule, in this case direct cooling by unit cooler or indirect cooling by antifreeze with the opportunity of temperature control in individual duplicators of cilindroconical tanks are used. With the help of modern technologies specialists can use different temperature gradients in each sector of cilindoconical tanks. It can influence on the fermentation and post fermentation process that is sensitive to all input parameters of wort. It follows that the special connection of mechanical cooling of cilindroconical tanks duplicators and installation of satisfactory control system and software for qualified visualization of fermentation process in the cilindroconical tanks are inevitable. Technologist has the opportunity to choose and store production methods and modes of cooling. It is expected that the installed cooling system can work automatically. According to the instant requirements of the range of cooling temperature it changes the parameters on the side of low-pressure of the cooling system in order to reach the required temperature level of beer.

Peak load

The important parameters for refrigeration equipment design of brewing factory are knowledge and preventive measure of power peaks in the cooling cycles:

peak type of load has wort cooling in the refrigeration process. This peak load can be dropped by 3 times because of the one-stage wort coolant and the ice water storage;

with the cooling of lager areas the load ranges in accordance with the changes of beer production volume in different seasons;

the cooling of cilindroconical tanks has many peak loads in comparison with the classical fermentation process, in that case the required average cooling capacity is lower than during the classical process. This is incredible but the highest refrigeration peak is reached with combined using of cilindroconical tanks in the fermentation process and lager post fermentation. In this mode young beer is cooled in the cilindroconical tanks up to lager temperature during 24 hours, and after that the first phase of the cooling period makes significant peak load;

beer cooling before filtration by the individual after-cooler is the process that is used not always, but it is similar to young beer cooling in cindroconical tanks, the level of this load is 10-15% in comparison with total peak load;


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