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Heat pumps

— 20

– heat pump

M monoblock (one block)

double blocks

liquid (water)


B aerial

20 horse power

Heat pump components:

- compressor;

- condenser (it is located in the same chassis outside);

- evaporator

- duty of water (it is located inside of the building)

The usage of a heat pump is an absolutely new problem solving on heat supplying with an ability to operate in air-conditioning mode if there is a reverse cycle of refrigerant.

Heat pumps are uncommonly economic, for example at 1kW of consumed electricity in dependance of operation mode and conditions they produce thermal energy up to 3-5kW! Such striking results are possible in virtue of nature heating energy obtaining: priming, water, air and only 20-30% out of obtained heating energy we need to spend on a compressor operation so that it simply pumped energy from air, ground or water into heated house, water pool and so on.

According to the forecast of world energy committee by 2020 the use of heat pumps for heating and hot water supply will be 75%.

Heat pumps can be used everywhere, it will find food everywhere, because ground and air can be found at the abandoned site, even away from the gas lines and power lines. Even the absence of 2-3 kW of electrical power is not an obstacle, as for the operation of the compressor, you can use diesel or gasoline engine.

Heat pump () will not leave no traces near, because it does not burn any fuel and produces no harmful emissions. The heat pump is always concerned about your health and the health of residents of the house, it is a completely environmentally secure machine.

The heat pump has a long service life before overhaul (10-15 years) and works completely offline. While the heat pump operation for heating besides of fan coil system, water underfloor heating system can be used, as if they were made for each other, because the low-temperature heating (up to +59 ° C) does not burn oxygen, it does not take place in the section of the battery, it has even heating throughout the area and it corresponds and is recommended for all medical requirements.

When choosing a heat pump, as well as any other source of heat, it should be remembered that one of the most important factors is the insulation of your home, because to heat outside is a thankless task. On average, for 10 m2 of a room, 1 kW of thermal output of any source of heat is taken (heat pump, gas boiler, water heater, etc.). In the air conditioning system for the same 10 m2 one must also lay the same 1 kW cooling capacity of air-conditioning, but all additional heat sources (electric loads and people) which are in the house, give extra warmth.

Therefore, when choosing the unit it is better to take it with a capacity reserve (15% -25%), besides, a chiller or a heat pump will quickly attain the desired temperature, and a temperature sensor will switch off the unit to rest, thus the operation cycle (on and off) of the compressor will be easier, which in its turn will extend working resorts of the machine, without spending more power herewith!

The design of heat pumps is very similar to the operation principle of refrigerator at home (Figure 5 and Figure 6). In both cases, we see four main positions in the hydraulic circuits.

They are: 1 - compressor, 2 - condenser, 3 - expansion device, 4 - evaporator.

Freons, which are used in both cases, do not contain chlorocarbons and they are ozone-safe.

The operation principle of the heat pump is based on the Carnot cycle, well known from school physics course. The compressor sucks the refrigerant from the evaporator, compresses it and pumps it under the pressure into the condenser. In the condenser the refrigerant heated by compression gives back all the heat (refrigerant temperature is up to 100 ° C) into the heating loop (this is the heat that we get), herewith the refrigerant itself changes its phase state from gas to liquid.

Then, in a liquid state under the pressure the refrigerant goes through expansion device (capillary tube or expansion valve) into the evaporator, where due to a sharp pressure decrease it causes evaporation (boiling) of the refrigerant and it turns into a gas phase.

In the evaporator refrigerant takes heat from the inner walls of the evaporator, and the evaporator in its turn makes the heat exchange with an external heat source (water, air, soil, etc.), giving back herewith a low temperature and taking heat from nature. After heat removal the refrigerant in the evaporator having collected the required heat energy and being in a gaseous state again, is being sucked from the evaporator to the compressor.

As well as in the domestic refrigerator, at required temperatures the heat pump operation is controlled by thermostat (microprocessor), which switches on and off the heat pump in dependance of temperature mode.

Domestic refrigerator


2 condenser (it is located outside of the refrigerator and heats up to 90C).

3 - expansion device

4 evaporator (it is located inside of the refrigerator casing and cools down to 24C).

Heat pump

1 compressor

2 condenser (it is located in a room and heats up to 90C and heats water in the heat exchanger up to 60C)

3 expansion device (capillary tube or expansion valve)

4 evaporator (it is located outside, throws its cold taking low potential heat).

While heat pump operates as a chiller (cooling), the hydraulic circuit is complemented by an automatic 4-way valve which in its turn changes the refrigerant direction (reverse cycle). Herewith the condenser works as an evaporator cooling water, which in its turn cools the room through fan coils (a fan coil is similar to an indoor unit of split system). The evaporator functions as a condenser giving away the heat from the room outside. Motor-compressors in heat pumps are scroll of two manufacturers: up to 8 models including - Copeland compressors, USA; from 10 models Danfoss compressors, Denmark. The given compressors have the highest COP (coefficient of efficiency ) and high reliability!

Coaxial evaporator “Sporlan” has a different design solution and it differs from the plate and shell- and-tube ones. The difference is in the configuration of the heat exchanger, which even when in air-conditioning mode inexperienced mechanics "unfreeze" the evaporator removing all the protections (for pressure, temperature and water flow), the hydraulics of the refrigerant will not be damaged and heat pump will not require a complete replacement. All units and components of the heat pump are also made and installed by leading manufacturers.

GC Leader reserves the right to add and change specifications and design solutions without notifying a consumer, which will not affect the product quality. Installation of a heat pump / air conditioner is to be carried out only by a qualified personnel.

Types of heat pumps

There are two categories of heat pumps - geothermal (type of liquid / water "" and soil / water "T") and aerotermalnye (a type of air / water "T"). The most widespread usage is that of , which use air as heat (T). The only drawback of T (air / water) is its poor performance at low temperatures outside. So for example, when the outdoor temperature is 0 ° C, we can at 1 kW of power to get up to 5 kW of heat, and when the temperature outside is -35 C, we obtain the ratio of 1:1, i.e. for 1 kW of electricity we get 1 kW of heat, as well as from conventional heaters. Fortunately, these cold days do not take more than 20% and there is no need to pay extra money, buying an oversized heat pump. For such "critical" days in the heat pump T (air / water) there is a special option "". This option represents an additional electric heater, which consists of three electric heaters of 4 kW each (total capacity of 12 kW). T with this option is considered to be bivalent, i.e. when the air temperature outside drops, T can not get the right heat from air and the microprocessor includes additional electric heaters controlling the inlet and outlet water and ambient temperature and monitoring a number of operation hours of each heater. It is possible to mount one or up to several additional electric heaters (option ) to heat pumps of any discharge. T is made as a bi-block, which consists of two blocks. The outdoor unit is on the street right next to the house, on which motor-compressor, the condenser, the hydraulic part of the unit and other items are located on the same frame. The indoor unit is in the house (in technical floor etc.). In the indoor unit there is an insulated coaxial heat exchanger, which is connected during installation of the heat pump by copper-plated pipe to valves of the blocks (Picture 7), as in domestic split systems. T and T are made as a single unit (monoblock). It is installed in the house. On the same frame there are: motor-compressor and two heat-insulated heat exchangers (refrigerant / water), where the refrigerant (circulating through the system with the help of the compressor and expansion device) transmits the heat energy from the heat exchanger of the primary circuit, in which there is the heat source, to the heat exchanger of the second circuit, which receives this heat, and with the help of a second pump (additional option) distributes the obtained heat throughout the house.

Geothermal heat pumps of the type liquid (water) / water "T" and soil / water "T" always have a high work coefficient, because you will find freezing temperatures neither in the ground or in the lake, well, river or creek. The technical difference of geothermal heat pump from aerothermal one is that in geothermal heat pumps the first heat exchanger takes the heat from nature through the water, and aerothermal one takes heat from air. In heat pumps T (soil / water) a prepared mixture circulates, it does not freeze at low temperatures, it does not leave precipitations in the form of salt on the walls of the heat exchanger. The main drawback of T is the high cost of construction in installation (horizontal or vertical) pipes into the ground. Along these pipelines a prepaired mixture citculates with the help of a pump taking heat from the ground. In heat pumps T (liquid / water) instead of prepaired mixture as in T, liquid (water) of the heat source (stream, lake, river, well, water from the well, etc.) circulates. The pump takes the necessary amount of water, driving it through a heat exchanger it takes the heat and an already chilled water drains back into the reservoir downstream. In this type of heat pump the main drawback is the deposition of sediments in the form of salt on the walls of the evaporator, because the water that we take from the heat source has a variety of impurities. Consequently, one is to use a dismountable heat exchanger (evaporator) for it to serve technically.

Heat pump - chiller (air conditioner)

In the presence of reversible refrigerant cycle, the heat pump can operate as a liquid cooler (chiller). The 4-way valve provides the possibility of reversive cycle (Picture 7). In the USA the heat pump is used by Americans in the meaning of air-conditioning. Heat pump, operating in the mode of a liquid cooler (chiller), can operate not only in air conditioning, but also in cooling of technical equipment, swimming pools, products, etc. Operating in the mode of the chiller, T has the same high efficiency (COP) and can operate at temperatures up to +43 C outside, cooling water to +2 C it the outlet. When instead of water to use a prepaired mixture (antifreezing) as a working body, the chiller at some settings of microprocessor, temperature and pressure sensors can cool this liquid down to -20 C.

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